All tree photos below were taken at Runnymede Park, Herndon, Virginia.
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Catalpa (Catalpa speciosa)
Catalpas are deciduous and grow 50 to 80 ft tall. They have large heart-shaped leaves, showy white flowers in broad clusters along stalks. In the autumn they have 8-20 inch long fruits which resemble slender bean pods. Catalpas have a rounded crown and spreading branches with coarse leaves. They grow well in sun to partial shade in various soil types.
Dogwood, Flowering (Cornus florida)
Flowering Dogwood is a small deciduous tree growing from 25 to 30 ft tall, with a trunk diameter of up to 12 inches. The leaves are opposite, oval, very finely toothed, under a lens, and they turn a rich red-brown in fall. The flowers are individually small and inconspicuous, with four greenish-yellow petals less than 1/5 of an inch. Around 20 flowers are produced in a dense, rounded, flowerhead less than 1/2 inch wide; the flowerhead is surrounded by four large white "petals" (actually bracts), each bract 1+ inch long and little less than 1 inch broad, rounded, and with a distinct notch at the apex. They typically flower in early April in the southern part of their range, to late April or early May in northern and high altitude areas. The fruit is a cluster of three to eight small berry drupes (single seed fruit), less than 1/2 inch in diameter, that ripen to a bright red in the fall. The fruit are eaten by birds, which distribute the seeds. The berries are not toxic. Berries are also eaten by squirrels. It grows in partial shade in moderate to well drained soil.
Fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus)
Fringetree is deciduous shrub or small tree growing 20-30 ft tall. The bark is scaly, brown tinged with red. The woody shoots are light green, downy at first, later becoming light brown. The buds are oval light brown and the leaves are opposite and oblong; they are hairless above, green and glossy, and finely downy below, particularly along the veins, and turn yellow in fall. The flowers have a pure white, deeply four-lobed corolla. Delicately fragrant flowers are produced on previous years growth; ivory to white clusters 6-8 inches long; dark blue fruit in fall, which attracts birds. Grows in sun to partial shade with average moisture and tolerates dry soil and air pollution. They are dioecious, with male and female flowers on different plants; male trees produce best flower display. Other English names occasionally used include Old man's beard.
Holly, American (Ilex opaca)
American Hollies are evergreen and grow up to 60 ft tall. They have light gray bark and have a pyramidal shape with dark green, spiny, leathery leaves. The tree is single or multi-trunked and are dioecious, with male and female flowers on different plants. Pollination is mainly by bees and other insects. The fruit is a small cluster of red berries on female plants when mature. Holly berries are toxic to humans, but they are an extremely important food for numerous species of birds and are eaten by other wild animals. American Holly grows in sun to partial shade in moist to dry soil.
Locust, Black (Robinia pseudoacacia)
Black Locusts are deciduous and grow 30-35 ft tall, with thick, deeply furrowed blackish bark. The leaves are pinnate with oval leaflets. Each leaf can have a pair of short thorns at the base, which could be absent on adult crown shoots. The intensely fragrant flowers are white and pendulous, similar to wisteria. It grows in full sun and tolerates a range of soil types. It is drought tolerant and is a rapid grower and can form a dense thicket. Black Locust is a good tree for difficult sites.
Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana)
Diospyros virginiana, the American persimmon, is known by a variety of names including common persimmon, 'simmon, and possumwood. The range of this tree is fairly wide, from New England to Florida, and west to Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas. The tree grows wild but has been cultivated for its fruit and wood since prehistoric times by Native Americans. It grows from 30 to 60 ft. It grows in sun to partial shade and prefers moist, well drained soil, but tolerates dry soil . The tree produces fragrant flowers in summer, the flowers are dioecious so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required. The flowers are pollinated by bees and other insects and wind. Fruiting typically begins when the tree is about six years old. The fruit is round or oval, usually yellowish to orange, on female trees in Fall. It has orange to mauve fall foliage and a deep tap root that makes large plants difficult to transplant. The fruit attracts bees, birds and butterflies (to plant larva).
Redbud, Eastern (Cercis canadensis)
Eastern Redbud is deciduous and common from southernmost Canada to piedmont Alabama and East. They are small deciduous trees or large shrubs, growing from 20-30 ft tall, characterized by simple, rounded to heart-shaped leaves and pinkish purple pea-shaped flowers in early spring on bare leafless shoots (nectar plant for bees), slender brown seed pods borne in clusters (seeds eaten by birds). A legume (manufactures its own nitrogen, which improves soil); yellow to greenish yellow fall foliage. Eastern Redbud is an American woodland understory tree. The flowers are not toxic. It grows in sun to partial shade, in moderate to rich, well drained soil.
Serviceberry (Amelanchier canadensis)
The Serviceberry tree, the common variety also known as Shadbush, is a small deciduous tree or large shrub with erect stems that form multi-stemmed clumps. It grows from 6 to 20 ft tall with a bushy spread of up to 10 ft across. It grows in the understory of temperate forests. Serviceberry trees have leaves that are 2 inches long and have a very pretty white fuzzy coat when young, becoming shiny green as they mature. The form has irregular branching with a narrow rounded crown. The fall color is striking yellow and gold. The flowers are white and very light pink in erect clusters and come in early spring as the leaves are unfolding. It grows in sun to partial shade, in moist, well drained soil but also tolerates moisture well. The purplish black berrylike fruits attract birds and are showy and not toxic. Serviceberry is an excellent small yard tree.
Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana)
Witch hazels are deciduous shrubs or small trees growing 15-25 ft tall. The leaves are alternately arranged, oval with a smooth or wavy margin. The horticultural name means "together with fruit", because its fruit, flowers, and next year's leaf buds all appear on the branch simultaneously (a rarity among trees). Each flower has four slender strap-shaped petals, which are pale to dark yellow. They are popular ornamental plants, grown for their clusters of rich spidery yellow flowers (some are fragrant); the flowers begin to expand in the autumn as or slightly before the leaves fall, and continue well into the winter. It grows in sun to shade, in moist to dry soil (extremely dry sites should be avoided). It has yellow to orange brown fall foliage and its structure can be crooked and usually multi-trunked with low branching. The name Witch has its origins in Middle English wiche, from the Old English wice, meaning "pliant" or "bendable". Hazel is derived from the use of the twigs as divining rods, just as hazel twigs were used in England. The bark and leaves are astringent; the extract, also referred to as witch hazel, is used medicinally. The seeds contain a quantity of oil and are not toxic.